Individual growth is facilitated when one interacts with others who are honest, accepting, and empathic. In Carl Rogers' view, Freud's defense mechanisms are intended to minimize the perceived disparity between: A) individuality and collectivism; B) individualism and collectivism.
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Which theorists are most likely to be criticized for underestimating?
selectively analyzing persons he respected for their traits. It has been argued that humanistic philosophers underestimate the human capacity to engage in destructive and evil actions.
Which personality theories have been criticized the most for encouraging individual selfishness and self indulgence?
How many personality theories have been accused of promoting selfishness and self-indulgence by critics of their work? Positive admiration that is unwavering.
Which theorist emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in personality development?
Although Stanley Standal first proposed this idea in 1954, it was later broadened and popularized by the humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers in 1956. In the context of client-centered treatment, unconditional positive regard means accepting and supporting someone no matter what they say or do. Founder Carl Rogers explains:
It conveys for me the central theme of my whole professional career, as that theme has been clarified via my own experience, interactions with others, and academic research.. There are so many variations on this topic that the general description “a person-centered approach” seems to best describe it. This approach's basic hypothesis can be stated succinctly. Because it is possible to tap into large resources of self-understanding, for shifting attitudes, and for directing one's own actions, if there is a definable atmosphere of facilitative psychological attitudes, these resources can be utilized.
Rogers advocated for the use of unconditional positive regard in therapy because he believed it was critical to a child's healthy growth. Humanistic therapists aim to assist their patients accept and take responsibility for themselves by providing them with unconditional positive respect. In the view of humanistic psychologists, the optimum conditions for the client's personal growth are provided by the therapist by offering them unconditional positive regard and acceptance.
Having a positive outlook on the future is a necessity in any assisting relationship. For counselors, such expectation manifests as Hopethe belief that something good and beneficial will happen in the client's personality. For this to be an example of unconditional positive regard, one must put aside one's own personal biases and ideas in order to fully accept a patient's situation. Unconditional positive esteem is based on the ability to separate one's actions from one's personality.
Psychology: Eighth Edition in Modules, by David G. Myers, states the following:
People can also help us grow by showing us unconditional positive respect, which Rogers referred to as “unconditional love.” This is a gracious disposition, one that values us despite our flaws. Dropping our masks, admitting our darkest thoughts, and finding that we're still loved is a huge relief. We can be ourselves without worrying about losing the respect of others when we're in a loving relationship, whether it's a marriage, a family, or a group of close friends.
In order to foster unconditional positive respect, it's important to remember Rogers' assertion that everyone possesses the inner resources necessary to develop personally and grow spiritually. Other psychologists were motivated by Rogers' approach to suspend judgment and listen to a person with an attitude that the client has the power to change within himself or herself, without actually changing who he or she is.
Is a discredited pseudo scientific theory of the brain that claimed that personality characteristics could be determined by examining bumps on a person's skull?
As the name suggests, phrenology is a pseudoscience that uses the measurement of bumps on the skull to predict mental qualities. On the basis of this theory, the brain is the organ of the mind and various brain areas have discrete functions or modules that are distinct from one another. Even though phrenology and astrology both have a basis in truth, phrenology went beyond factual knowledge in a way that deviated from scientific research. Empirical research has cast doubt on the basic phrenological belief that measuring the shape of the skull can predict personality traits. German physician Franz Joseph Gall developed the discipline in 1796 and it became popular in the 19th century, particularly between 1810 and 1840. Edinburgh, where the Edinburgh Phrenological Society was founded in 1820, was the primary center of phrenology in the British Isles.
Today, the pseudoscience of phrenology is widely acknowledged. Although phrenology was already considered pseudoscience in the 19th century, its scientific rigor was questionable even by today's standards. Influential in the development of psychiatry and psychology in the 19th century was Phrenological theory. Neuropsychology has benefited greatly from Gall's theory that character, thoughts, and emotions may be found in specific parts of the brain.
While phrenology itself has long been discredited, current researchers may learn a great deal about the cognitive and linguistic abilities of ancient human species by studying the inner surface of their skulls. They can even deduce something about their social life. This method is frequently referred to as “paleo-phrenology” because of its limitations.
What is the term for an attitude of total acceptance toward another person?
Positive admiration that is unwavering. It is a state of complete acceptance, according to Rogers,
What is emotional instability most closely related to on the big 5?
Anger, anxiety, and depression are all examples of negative emotions that can be characterized by neuroticism. Emotional instability is a common term for it. Those with a high level of neuroticism are prone to emotional outbursts and stress. Ordinary events are seen as frightening, and minor grievances are viewed as hopeless by those with this mentality. This means they are often in a downbeat mood because their unpleasant emotional reactions last for a long time. Emotional regulation issues can affect a person's capacity to think clearly, make decisions, and manage successfully with stress if they are very neurotic.
Individuals with low neuroticism, on the other hand, are more emotionally stable and less prone to emotional outbursts. Their mental stability and lack of long-term negative feelings make them more likely to be tranquil. The absence of negative sensations does not imply that low-scoring students feel a lot better.
In psychology, neuroticism is an essential personality attribute. Negative emotions are a natural part of our lives. Neurotic people are more likely than the general population to suffer from feelings of worry, wrath, guilt, and depression. They are more susceptible to environmental stress, and are more inclined to perceive everyday events as dangerous and little frustrations as insurmountable. They may have a hard time restraining their impulses and delaying satisfaction. Risk factors for neuroticism “The term “internalizing” mental diseases such as anxiety disorders such as phobias and depression (traditionally called neuroses).
Individuals who score low in neuroticism are more stable and less prone to reacting to stressful situations. As a result, they are more likely to be peaceful, even-tempered, and relaxed. There is a difference between a lack of negative feeling and a dearth of happy emotion. Extraversion is a feature that includes a high level of pleasant emotion. Positive and negative emotional states would be experienced by neurotic extraverts, such as those with a high degree of neuroticism “Emotional roller coaster.” Those who have low levels of neuroticism (especially those who are also high in extraversion) tend to be happier and more satisfied with their life than others.
Which theory examines the influence of one's environment behaviors and thoughts on personality?
Individuals and their environments interact to form their personalities, according to behavioral theories. Behavioral theorists focus on what can be seen and measured, but they often overlook the importance of what people think and feel on the inside. behavioral theorists such as Skinner and JB are included in this category.
What was Sigmund Freud's theory of the unconscious?
When it comes to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic view of the personality, the unconscious is referred to as a storehouse of unrecognized sensations, thoughts, urges, and memories that exist outside of our conscious awareness.
In this view, most of the contents of the unconscious, such as sensations of pain, fear, or conflict, are regarded inappropriate or unpleasant. It was a belief of Freud's that the unconscious influences people's actions, even when they are ignorant of it.
What is emphasized by humanistic psychology?
Humanistic psychology takes a holistic approach to psychological investigation. According to humanistic psychology, the best way to understand human behavior is to look at it from both the observer's and the subject's perspective. They believe that an individual's actions are directly linked to his or her internal thoughts and self-image.
Humanistic psychologists, in contrast to behaviorists, think that people are more than just the sum of their experiences.
It is the work of humanistic psychologists to delve into the complexities of how people grow, teach, and learn in their daily lives.
They focus on universal human traits including love, loss, compassion, and self-worth.
Humanistic psychologists explore how people's beliefs of themselves and the meanings they attach to their events influence their behavior. Humanistic psychologists aren't really interested in things like primal urges, automatic reactions to stimuli, or the effects of previous life events on current behavior. Instead, they believe that human conduct is shaped by conscious choices, responses to internal demands, and the current environment.
- The way a person acts is heavily influenced by the way he or she sees the world.
- Individuals are driven and inspired to reach their full human potential by internal forces.