- In his seminal personality theory, Carl Rogers stressed the role of the human propensity toward self-actualization in forming our individual identities.
- People's subjective world (phenomenal field) constantly changes as they respond to stimuli, according to Rogers. A person's self-concept evolves throughout time as a result of the input from this area of reality.
- Regard for one's own worth is essential for the growth of one's own self-concept. It's a place where there are no preconceived ideas of value. Conditions of worth must be met in order to be judged successful in conditional favorable regard.
- The conditional state of favorable regard influences the development of two distinct selves in humans: an ideal and a real one. Congruity refers to the degree to which one's actual self and one's ideal self are as close as possible.
- “The good life,” according to Rogers, is a life in which people are always striving to fulfill their potential and allowing their personalities to emerge from the experiences they have had.
- For the same reason that Maslow's theories were critiqued for lacking empirical data, Rogers' theories were also criticized.
- Psychology that emerged in the mid-20th century as a response to psychoanalysis and behaviorism; this approach stresses an individual's intrinsic need for self-actualization and creativity, which is the focus of humanistic psychology.
- Consistency between the ideal and real self in Rogers' humanistic personality theory is known as congruity
- All that we are aware of, including things and people as well as our thoughts, images and ideas, is contained within the phenomenal field.
Which theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by interactions?
Who stressed that connections with those who are honest, welcoming, and empathic encourage personal growth? In Carl Rogers' view, Freud's defense mechanisms are intended to minimize the perceived disparity between: A) individuality and collectivism; B) individualism and collectivism.
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Which theorists are most likely to be criticized for underestimating?
selectively analyzing persons he adored for their characteristics. Humanistic theorists have been accused of underestimating the intrinsic human ability for harmful and wicked behavior.
What is the defense mechanism is which self justifying explanation replaces the real unconscious reason for action?
DSM-IV defines rationalization as “when the individual deals with emotional conflict or stressors from within or outside of themselves by concealing their own true motivations for their own thoughts and actions or feelings through the elaboration of soothing or self-serving but incorrect explanations.
Which theorist emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in personality development?
In the framework of client-centered therapy, unconditional positive regard, first proposed by Stanley Standal in 1954 and popularized by humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers in 1956, is the acceptance and support of a person without regard to their words or actions. A statement from Carl Rogers, who founded the organization, reads:
My entire professional life has been centered around this one central theme, which has been developed via my interactions with others and my own study. This concept has been applied and proved to be useful in so many various contexts that the general term “a person-centered approach” now seems to be the most descriptive. The underlying assumption of this strategy can be summarized in a few words. To put it another way, it is based on the idea that the individual has a great amount of internal resources that may be utilized if only a specified climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be created.
For Rogers, healthy development relied on unconditional positive esteem, which he strove to promote as a therapeutic component. Humanistic therapists aim to assist their patients accept and take responsibility for themselves by providing them with unconditional positive respect. By showing the client unconditional positive attention and acceptance, humanistic psychologists feel they are providing the finest possible conditions for the client's personal growth.'
Having a positive outlook on the future is a necessity in any assisting relationship. Hope is an expression of the counselor's belief that the client's personality will change in a positive way as a result of their work together. For this to be an example of unconditional positive regard, one must put aside one's own personal biases in order to embrace the client. The ability to separate behaviors from the individual exhibiting them is a critical component of unconditional positive regard.
In his textbook, Psychology: Eighth Edition in Modules, David G. Myers writes:
The acceptance of otherswhat Rogers called “unconditional good regard”also helps us grow. This is an attitude of grace, one that values us despite our flaws. A powerful sense of relief is felt when we let go of our masks, reveal our deepest fears, and discover that we are still loved. The freedom to express ourselves without fear of losing the respect of others can be found in a loving marriage, a close family, or a close friendship.
Keeping in mind Rogers' idea that all persons possess the internal resources necessary for personal improvement might help foster unconditional positive regard. Psychologists were encouraged to suspend judgment and listen with an attitude that the client has the power to improve without truly altering who they are because of Rogers' notion.
What did Maslow placed at the base of his hierarchy of needs?
The most common visual representation of Maslow's hierarchy is a pyramid. The most fundamental needs are found at the base of the pyramid, while the most complicated needs are found at the summit.
Basic physical needs, such as food, water, sleep, and warmth, are at the bottom of the pyramid. People can then move on to the next level of requirements, which are for safety and security, once these lower-level wants are addressed.
Is a discredited pseudo scientific theory of the brain that claimed that personality characteristics could be determined by examining bumps on a person's skull?
Phriology (from the Ancient Greek words for “thought” and “knowledge,” “logos”) is a pseudoscience in which bumps on the skull are measured in order to make predictions about a person's personality. On the basis of this theory, the brain is the organ of the mind and various brain areas have discrete functions or modules that are distinct from one another. Phrenology generalized beyond empirical knowledge in a way that deviated from science, despite the fact that both notions have a base in reality. Studies have shown that phrenology's basic claim that personality traits can be predicted by analyzing the shape of the skull is false. German physician Franz Joseph Gall developed the discipline in 1796 and it was widely used in the 19th century, particularly between 1810 and 1840. The Edinburgh Phrenological Society, founded around 1820, was the primary British center for phrenology.
Today, phrenology is considered a fraudulent science. Although phrenology was already considered pseudoscience in the 19th century, its scientific rigor was questionable even by today's standards. Psychiatry and psychology in the 19th century were heavily influenced by phrenological ideas. Neuropsychology has benefited greatly from Gall's theory that character, thoughts, and emotions may be found in specific parts of the brain.
While phrenology itself has long been discredited, current researchers may learn a great deal about the cognitive and linguistic abilities of ancient human species by studying the inner surface of their skulls. They can even deduce something about their social life. Paleo-phrenology” has been thrown around because of its limitations.
What is the term for an attitude of total acceptance toward another person?
respect and admiration without conditions a mindset of unconditional acceptance of another person, as defined by Rogers.
Which theory examines the influence of one's environment behaviors and thoughts on personality?
According to behavioral theories, a person's personality emerges as a result of their interactions with their environment. Behavioral theorists focus on what can be seen and measured, but they often overlook the importance of what people think and feel on the inside. behavioral theorists such as Skinner and JB are included in this category.
What was Sigmund Freud's theory of the unconscious?
When it comes to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of the personality, the unconscious is referred to as a storehouse of unrecognized sensations, thoughts, desires, and memories that are not accessible to the conscious individual.
Most of what is in the unconscious is deemed unwelcome or unpleasant, such as thoughts of pain, anxiety, or conflict. A belief held by Sigmund Freud was that the unconscious impacts people's actions, even when they are not aware of it.
What is Sigmund Freud's defense mechanism?
Theorists categorize and conceptualize defense systems in a variety of ways. Cramer and Paulhus (1997) both provide extensive discussions of hypotheses of defense mechanisms (1991). A special issue on defense mechanisms was published in the Journal of Personality (1998).
Sigmund Freud's daughter, Anna Freud, wrote The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936) in which she listed the ten defense mechanisms that her father used in his writings: repression, regression, reaction formation, isolation, undoing and projection, turning against oneself, reversal into the opposite, and sublimation or displacement.
Defence systems, according to Sigmund Freud, can either distort or prevent id impulses, depending on the individual. Defense mechanisms, according to Anna Freud, are sophisticated intellectual and physical automatisms that arise throughout both involuntary and voluntary learning.
“Signal anxiety” was coined by Anna Freud as “not exactly a conflicted instinctive tension, but a signal occurring in the ego of an anticipated instinctual tension,” she explained. As a result, anxiety was recognized as having a critical role in alerting the organism to danger or a threat to its balance through its biological adaptation. Because worry manifests physically or mentally as tension, the body has a signal to respond in order to protect itself from any imagined risk.
It was Anna Freud who devoted the most time and effort studying five main defense mechanisms: repression, regressive, projection, and sublimation. A person's conscious and unconscious reactions to social stress are reflected in their defense systems.
- Because of its societal stigma, a sensation may be suppressed or pushed into the unconscious mind through the process of “repression.”
- “less challenging and safer” than returning to a more advanced stage of mental/physical development, regression
- The act of seeing one's own feelings or “unconscious urges” in the actions of others rather than confronting one's own, which is considered socially unacceptable.
- “frequently excessive and obsessive” is how the term “reaction formation” is used in this context. Instead of cheating on her husband, a woman who is madly in love with a man who is not her husband could become fixated with providing him affection.
- An appropriate technique to communicate worry, considered the most socially acceptable mechanism is sublimation.
Borderline personality disorder may result from Otto F. Kernberg's (1967) hypothesis of borderline personality organization. The ego psychological object relations theory is the basis of his ideas. The development of borderline personality disorder occurs when a youngster is unable to combine beneficial and harmful mental items. According to Kernberg, this type of personality structure can't exist without fundamental defense systems. Projection, denial, dissociation, and splitting are all examples of primitive psychological defenses, which are also known as borderline defense mechanisms. In addition, borderline defenses like devaluation and projective identification are considered.
Defendants, according to George Eman Vaillant (1977), are categorized according to their psychoanalytical development. Pathological, immature, neurotic, and “mature” defenses are categorized.
What are Freudian defense mechanisms?
When a person's anxiety is the result of unwelcome thoughts or feelings, their defense mechanisms kick in unwittingly to keep them safe. A defensive mechanism, according to Freudian theory, is a distortion of reality that helps us better deal with a circumstance.