Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 25.8 million people in the United States, or 8.3 percent of the population. 1 Non-Hispanic Blacks aged 20 and up account for 4.9 million (18.7%) of the total. 1 Complications of type 2 diabetes, such as cerebrovascular illness, renal failure, and amputations, are substantially more common among African Americans than in non-Hispanic Whites.1
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With proper diabetic self-care, these problems can be decreased or avoided. Diabetes therapy relies heavily on self-care knowledge, skills, and activities. The intricacy of sustaining and managing daily self-care activities, such as exercise, food change, and medication adherence, makes diabetic self-care difficult. The American Association of Diabetes Educators2 lists seven diabetes self-care behaviors: being active (physical activity and exercise); eating healthy (diet composition and caloric content); taking medications; monitoring (e.g., blood glucose, weight, blood pressure); problem solving, particularly for blood glucose (high and low levels, sick days); reducing risks (to reduce diabetes complications; smoking cessation); and healthy coping (psychosocial adaptation). These behaviors have been recognized as measurable results of effective diabetes education and should be practiced at both the individual and population level to accomplish the targeted outcomes of diabetes complications prevention and physical and psychological well-being.
Spiritual and religious beliefs and activities can either help people cope with a chronic illness by providing support, confidence, and hope, or they might obstruct successful coping by causing them to ignore self-care activities in favor of prayer and/or meditation.
3 While there is evidence of a link between spirituality and hypertension self-management4, few research have looked at the impact of spirituality on diabetes self-management.
5 As a result, less is known about how spiritual beliefs and practices, as well as social support, influence diabetic self-care among African American adults. 6 Spirituality is an important source of emotional support; God is perceived as central in providing strength to deal with daily challenges; God is frequently called upon for help in controlling diabetes; and a strong belief in God, prayer, meditation, and support from church members were all sources of support in previous studies concerning spirituality, religion, and diabetes in African Americans. 3, 5, and 8 Religion and spirituality were linked to better glycemic control in Black women with type 2 diabetes in one study,9 while religion and spirituality were linked to a lower likelihood of lifelong smoking among African Americans in another. 10
Because of the foregoing findings and a gap in the literature, we decided to look into the possibilities of incorporating spiritual and religious views into diabetic self-management. Spiritual views encompass a connection to a higher being as well as an existential outlook on life, death, and the nature of reality. 11 Religious practices/rituals such as prayer or meditation, as well as interaction with religious community members, are examples of religious beliefs. While spiritual and religious views have a lot in common, the authors decided to look into both of them because they are commonly brought up when dealing with disease. It's also necessary to look into both of these concepts because some people consider themselves spiritual but don't necessarily believe in religion. While religious beliefs and practices are more easily measured, the authors intended to look at the larger context of people's belief systems, specifically their perspectives on life's meaning, disease, and existential concerns. 13 The Systems of Belief Inventory (SBI) was chosen to measure these constructs due to the requirement to examine both spiritual and religious beliefs and practices in the process of coping with an illness.
The researchers wanted to see if there was a link between (a) spiritual and religious beliefs and practices and social support, and (b) diabetic self-care activities in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Because African Americans have numerous diabetes inequities, this is an essential topic (i.e., highest rates of diabetes, diabetes complications, and diabetes-related mortality rates). 14
Because little is known about how spiritual and religious beliefs and practices affect diabetes self-care in African American adults, this study looked at the relationship between spirituality, religion, and diabetes self-care activities in this population, such as diet, physical activity, blood glucose self-testing, and foot care behaviors. Because some evidence suggests a link between spirituality and religion and lifetime smoking in African Americans10, a negative link between spirituality and religion and smoking was hypothesized. It was expected, in particular, that those who scored higher on spiritual and religious beliefs and practices, as well as social support, would engage in more diabetes self-care activities and smoke less.
What is religious and spiritual beliefs?
Religion is a collection of organized ideas and behaviors that are usually shared by a community or group of people. Spirituality is more of an individual discipline that involves feeling at ease and having a sense of purpose. It also has to do with the process of forming views about the meaning of life and one's relationship to others.
What is a religious belief?
If required, the courts will determine whether or not anything is a religion. To determine whether anything is a religion under the law, they will look at its structure and belief system.
You are protected under the Equality Act from discrimination based on your religious views.
Religious belief is the acceptance of a religion's central articles of faith, such as the belief that Jesus is the Son of God in Christianity. It also refers to religious beliefs that exist within a religion but are not shared by all members of that religion.
- Some Christians believe that wearing a cross as a symbol of their faith is a good idea.
What if you don't have any religion or religious beliefs?
If you don't belong to any religion or have any religious views, such as if you're an atheist, you're likewise protected from discrimination under the Equality Act.
What does spiritual belief mean?
Spirituality is a broad notion that refers to a belief in something other than oneself. It might include religious traditions centered on the belief in a higher power, but it can also include a holistic belief in an individual's connectedness to others and the rest of the universe.
What is important religious or spiritual?
Religion and spirituality can both be beneficial to one's mental health. They have the same effect in certain respects. Religion and spirituality, for example, can both assist a person cope with stress by instilling calm, purpose, and forgiveness. However, due to their distinct natures, the benefits of the two often differ.
What exactly is spirituality?
Spirituality is defined as the awareness of a feeling, sense, or belief that there is something more to being human than sensory experience, and that the greater total of which we are a part is cosmic or divine in nature. True spirituality necessitates the opening of one's heart.
What are the three types of religious beliefs?
There are several religious beliefs and religious systems to choose from. Each religion develops its own set of beliefs and a larger system of beliefs. Animism, polytheism, and monotheism are the three basic categories that these systems fall into. However, not all faiths can be cleanly classified into one of these three groups.
Animism is the concept that everything has a soul or spirit, including plants, animals, and inanimate objects. It is a worldview that considers the Earth and the universe to be essentially living and interrelated. Shinto (a Japanese religion), Inuit religion, and Australian Aboriginal faiths are examples of animist belief systems.
Polytheism is a phrase used to describe any theological system in which there are several gods. Each god is frequently responsible for a unique concept, element, or phenomenon. Polytheistic faiths can be quite difficult to understand. Ancient Greek and Roman religions, as well as current Hinduism and Neopaganism, were polytheistic.
Any religious belief system in which there is just one god is known as monotheism. Monotheism is found in several of the world's major religions, including Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. Even in monotheistic theological systems, such as Christianity, there is often place for additional supernatural beings, such as Satan.
Some religious belief systems, such as Taoism, defy classification and can be found in two or even all three. Animism, polytheism, and monotheism are all important terms for understanding religion, but they don't cover all. Previously, there was a widely accepted notion known as the “paradigm of evolutionary religious structure,” which claimed that cultures evolve gradually from animism through polytheism to monotheism over time. This has been thoroughly debunked since then.
Religion and spirituality, according to studies, have significant effects on the quality of human existence and its significance (1). The importance of life meaning for psychological and physical health and well-being cannot be overstated. Only recently have researchers examined the presence of life meaning and the desire for life meaning as distinct categories (2). The presence of meaning was favorably linked with life satisfaction, pleasure, and good affect, and negatively associated with depression and negative affect, according to their findings, whereas the quest for meaning had the opposite pattern of associations. Those who already had significant meaning in their lives, on the other hand, were positively associated with well-being, more life satisfaction, more happiness, and less depression. According to a growing amount of evidence, people frequently turn to religion to cope with stressful occurrences (3). Personality traits and spirituality/religiousness (S/R) have emerged as major predictors of persistent well-being in the face of adversity as researchers seek to explain individual differences in people's psychological resilience to life stressors (35).
As a result, numerous psychologists have looked at the influence of human spirituality on various aspects of life. Despite the fact that many studies have focused on the association between religiosity or spirituality and mental health, spirituality and mental health have been proven to have a beneficial relationship (611). Some studies have also found specific spiritual risk factors for poor mental health, such as feelings of hatred toward God, confrontations with the community and clergy, and spiritual concerns and bewilderment (12).
Many psychotherapists have employed religious and spiritual notions in psychotherapy in recent decades. These religious interventions are combined with various psychotherapy theories, such as Behavior Therapy (13), Psychoanalytic Therapy (14), ExistentialHumanistic Therapy (15), Gestalt Therapy (16), Adlerian Therapy (17), Person-Centered Therapy (18), RationalEmotive Therapy (19), and Cognitive Therapy (20). (20, 21). Richard and Bergin (22) propose testing religiousness at a wide level to help psychotherapists better comprehend their patients' religiousness.
Rajaei (1) employed spirituality in psychotherapy and suggested Religious Cognitive – Emotional Therapy as a new form of psychotherapy (RCET). Finding the meaning of life, according to RCET, is critical for human beings. This idea also implies that spiritual beliefs can assist people in locating it and recognizing its influence on their emotions, behaviors, and mental health (1). Three main theological ideas were mentioned by Rajaei (1, 20, 23): human being (self and others), existence, and God. Rejaei and colleagues (23) discovered that fundamental religious beliefs have a negative association with identity crisis and a good link with overall health in one study. Many research have also looked into the effectiveness of psychotherapy based on religious intervention. According to the findings of those research, this type of psychotherapy is helpful and can help people improve their mental health.
There is minimal research on religion itself and the relationship between religiosity and personality, despite the fact that there are many studies on the relationship between religiosity, spirituality, and mental health. In one study, Hennigsgaard & Arnau (24) discovered that, on a univariate level, all religiosity and spirituality factors, with the exception of extrinsic orientation, had a substantial correlation with the Big Five Traits. However, at the multivariate level, extrinsic orientation, along with quest orientation and inner orientation, showed a substantial connection with the Big Five Traits.
Alminhana and Moreira-Almeda (25) found that strong religiousness is linked to mild psychotic symptoms, as well as high agreeableness and conscientiousness. When Maltby and Day (26) apply Eysenck's personality model to spirituality, they find that extraversion accounts for the majority of the variance (between 9 and 14 percent) in spirituality scores. Spiritual transcendence, according to piedmont (27), is a vast motivating domain with a similar width to the constructs in the Five-Factor Model and should be considered a potential sixth major dimension of personality. The goal of this study is to discover the relationship between basic religious beliefs (Human, Existence, and God) provided in Religious CognitiveEmotional Theory (1) and Five Personality Factors, taking into account the literature on spirituality, religiosity, and human primary features (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness).
How does religion differ from spirituality?
Religion is a collection of organized ideas and behaviors that are usually shared by a community or group of people.
Spirituality: This is a more personal discipline that involves feeling at ease and having a sense of purpose. It also refers to the process of forming views about the meaning of life and one's connection to others in the absence of any predetermined spiritual principles.
Imagine a football game as a metaphor for the link between spirituality and religion. The rules, officials, other players, and field markings all serve as guides as you play the game, much like religion can help you uncover your spirituality.
Kicking a ball around a park, without needing to play on a field or follow all of the rules and regulations, can still provide fulfillment and fun while expressing the core of the game, comparable to spirituality in life.
You can identify as religious or spiritual in any combination, but being religious does not inherently make you spiritual, and vice versa.
What are the 3 elements of spirituality?
In their eternal wisdom, all shamans, healers, sages, and wisdom keepers of all centuries, continents, and peoples claim that human spirituality is made up of three aspects: connections, values, and life purpose. These three components are so strongly linked that it may be difficult to tell them apart. Take a minute to ponder on each facet of human spirituality to determine the state of your spiritual well-being if this is possible. This will be a three-part monthly series, starting with relationships.
Internal (your domestic policy)how you deal with yourself, how you nurture the relationship with yourself and your higher selfand external (your foreign policy)how you relate, support, and interact with those people (and all living entities) in your environmentare the two categories of relationships.
What criteria would you use to assess your internal relationship, and what steps could you take to improve it?
How would you assess your external relationships, shifting from the perspective of domestic policy to international policy?